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Market Research Report

Prosthetic Heart Valves

Published by Global Industry Analysts, Inc. Product code 236871
Published Content info 164 Pages
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Prosthetic Heart Valves
Published: September 1, 2018 Content info: 164 Pages
Description

This report analyzes the worldwide markets for Prosthetic Heart Valves in US$ by the following Segments: Tissue Heart Valves, Transcatheter Heart Valves, and Mechanical Heart Valves. The report provides separate comprehensive analytics for the US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and Rest of World. Annual estimates and forecasts are provided for the period 2015 through 2024. Market data and analytics are derived from primary and secondary research. Company profiles are primarily based on public domain information including company URLs. The report profiles 22 companies including many key and niche players such as -

Abbott Laboratories
Edwards Lifesciences Corporation
JenaValve Technology, Inc.
LivaNova PLC
Medtronic plc
On-X Life Technologies, Inc.

Table of Contents
Product Code: MCP-6753

Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY & PRODUCT DEFINITIONS

  • Study Reliability and Reporting Limitations
  • Data Interpretation & Reporting Level
  • Quantitative Techniques & Analytics
  • Product Definitions and Scope of Study
  • Mechanical Heart Valves
  • Transcatheter Heart Valves
  • Biological/Tissue Heart Valves

2. OUTLOOK

  • A Prelude
  • Aortic Stenosis - An Underappreciated yet Growing Condition
  • Market Overview
  • Outlook
  • Analysis by Region
  • Market Prospects by Type
  • Major Growth Drivers & Issues
  • Aging Demographics and Increasing Incidences of Cardiac Diseases
    • Table 1: Global Population Statistics for the 65+ Age Group (Male & Female) for Major Countries/Regions: 2015 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Table 2: Global Aging Population (in Thousands) by Age Group: 2010, 2015, 2025 & 2050 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Table 3: Aging (65+) Demographics as a Percentage of Total Population for Major Countries: 2010, 2015 & 2020 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Table 4: Elderly Population (65+ Years) as a % of Total Population (2010, 2015 & 2025) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Table 5: Global Life Expectancy at Age 60 and 80 Years: 2010-2015; 2020-2025; and 2045-2050 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Table 6: Life Expectancy for Select Countries in Number of Years: 2015 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • Under-Treated Population
  • Large Untreated Rheumatic Heart Disease Patient Population
  • Developing Countries Face Accessibility Issues
  • Pediatric Heart Valve Disease - Repair vs. Replacement
  • Noise Emanated by Mechanical Heart Valves May Lead to Insomnia among Recipients

3. INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

  • TAVR Providers Focus on Label Expansion to Drive Market
  • Developed Markets Move towards Bioprosthetic Valves
  • Artificial Mechanical Heart Valves Come of Age
  • Biological Valve Options - Better, Yet Need Improvements
  • Design and Function of Bio-Prosthesis Tissues
  • Tissue Engineered Aortic Valves - The Future
  • The Renaissance of Sutureless Valves
  • Safety Concerns Shifts Focus towards Stentless Valves
  • Metals Giving Way to Carbon Compounds and Polymers in Mechanical Heart Valves
  • TAVR - An Introduction
  • Transcatheter Heart Valve Replacement to Lead Growth
  • TAVI/TAVR - A Review of Present, Present and Future Prospects
  • Issues Confronting TAVI's Potential Indication Expansions
  • The Two Leading Transcatheter Heart Valves Compared
  • Newer Valves on the Horizon
    • Select Major First and Second Generation Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Products - Key Features and Benefits
  • Transcatheter Mitral Valve Regurgitation Treatment Faces Hurdles

4. INNOVATIONS IN THE HEART VALVE MARKET

  • Artificial Heart Valve with Tissue Repairing Capability
  • New Heart Valves with Regenerating Properties
  • Novel Heart Procedure for AS, Vancouver 3M Clinical Pathway
  • Medtronic CoreValve Evolut TAVR
  • Smallest Heart Valve in Young Patients
  • Innovative Cost-Effective, Easily Mass-Produced Plastic Valve to Revolutionize Heart Valve Replacement Technology
  • Superhydrophobic BMHV Expected to Revolutionize Heart Valve Replacement Technology
  • Masters Series Mechanical Heart Valve with Hemodynamic Plus (HP) Sewing Cuff for Pediatric Usage
  • 3D CAVD model for Studying Common Heart Ailments
  • New Research Aims to Cut to the Root of Heart Valve Diseases
  • Use of Genomics to Discover the Origins of HVD
  • Effects of Environmental Factors on Mutation and CHD
  • Xeltis Develops Innovative Heart Valve for Children with Heart Valve Defects
  • MitraClip
  • Tricuspid Valve Repair
  • Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement
  • Percutaneous Pulmonary Valve Implant
  • Holographic Imaging of Heart
  • Inspiris Resilia Valve

5. PRODUCT OVERVIEW

  • Human Heart - Morphology
  • An Introduction to Heart Valves
  • Heart Valves and Blood Flow Control - A Snapshot
  • Heart Valve Disorders
  • Probable Causes of Heart Valve Diseases
  • Diagnosis
  • Replacement or Repair?
  • Heart Valve Replacement
  • Prosthetic Heart Valves - An Introduction
  • Chronology of Important Developments in Prosthetic Heart Valve Market
  • Designing Considerations for Prosthetic Heart Valves
  • Mechanical Valves
    • Caged Ball Design
    • Tilting Disc Heart Valve
    • Bileaflet Valves
  • Transcatheter Heart Valves
  • Biological/Tissue Valves
    • Stentless Tissue Valves
    • Stented Tissue Valves
  • Mechanical Vs. Biological
  • Some Important Facts
  • Valve Failure
  • Symptoms of Malfunctioning Prosthetic Heart Valve
  • Clinical Symptoms
  • Physical Symptoms
    • Sound
    • PHV Murmurs
  • Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis (PVE)
  • Prosthetic Valve Thrombosis (PVT)
  • Embolization
  • Structural Breakdown of Bioprosthetic Valves

6. COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE

  • Abbott Emerges as Global Leader in Structural Heart Treatment
  • A Peek into the Competitive Landscape of Heart Valves Market
    • Table 7: Leading Players in Global Heart Valve Market (2017): Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Edwards Lifesciences, Medtronic, Abbott, LivaNova, and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • Edwards Lifesciences Dominates in the TAVR Market
    • Table 8: Leading Players in the Global Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Market (2017): Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Edwards Lifesciences, Medtronic and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • Medtronic Survives Patent Challenges, Settles Dispute with Edwards
  • 6.1 Focus on Select Players
  • Abbott Laboratories (US)
  • Edwards Lifesciences Corporation (US)
  • JenaValve Technology, Inc. (US)
  • LivaNova PLC (UK)
  • Medtronic plc (Ireland)
  • On-X Life Technologies, Inc. (US)
  • 6.2 Recent Industry Activity
  • Boston Scientific Acquires Claret Medical
  • VFT and AorTech Sign Agreement for Developing Heart Valves
  • Edwards Lifesciences Receives CE Mark for Edwards Cardioband Tricuspid System
  • Abbott Receives FDA Approval for Masters HP(tm) Rotatable Mechanical Heart Valve
  • Edwards Lifesciences Receives CE Mark for CENTERA Valve
  • Boston Scientific to Acquire Millipede
  • Medtronic Receives CE Mark and FDA Approval for Avalus(TM) Pericardial Aortic Surgical Valve
  • Edwards Lifesciences Receives FDA Approval for INSPIRIS RESILIA Aortic Valve
  • Edwards Lifesciences FDA Approval for Edwards SAPIEN 3 Transcatheter Heart Valve
  • Boston Scientific Acquires Symetis SA
  • Medtronic Launches CoreValve(tm) Evolut(tm) PRO Valve in the US
  • Medtronic Receives FDA Approval for Melody(tm) TPV
  • Keystone Heart and Venus Medtech Enter into Strategic Partnership
  • Edwards Lifesciences Acquires Valtech Cardio
  • Medtronic Launches CoreValve(tm) Evolut(tm) TAVI in Europe
  • Abbott Acquires St. Jude Medical

7. GLOBAL MARKET PERSPECTIVE

    • Table 9: World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Prosthetic Heart Valves by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Table 10: World 10-Year Perspective for Prosthetic Heart Valves by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and Rest of World Markets for Years 2015, 2018 & 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • Analysis by Type
    • Table 11: World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Tissue Heart Valves by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Table 12: World 10-Year Perspective for Tissue Heart Valves by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and Rest of World Markets for Years 2015, 2018 & 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Table 13: World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Transcatheter Heart Valves by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Table 14: World 10-Year Perspective for Transcatheter Heart Valves by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and Rest of World Markets for Years 2015, 2018 & 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Table 15: World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Mechanical Heart Valves by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Table 16: World 10-Year Perspective for Mechanical Heart Valves by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and Rest of World Markets for Years 2015, 2018 & 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)

8. REGIONAL MARKET PERSPECTIVE

  • 8.1 The United States
  • A. Market Analysis
    • Current and Future Analysis
    • Rising Cases of Heart Diseases Bring Opportunities for Medical Device Makers
    • Market Overview
    • Valvular Disease Statistics
    • Complications in Prosthetic Heart Valve
    • Demographics Spur Growth
    • Table 17: US Population Breakdown by Age Group (2015) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Minimally Invasive Surgeries for Aortic Stenosis Treatment Gain Popularity
    • Valve Type and Age Likely to Impact Success of Heart Valve Replacement Surgery
    • FDA Regulations for Medical Devices
      • New Guidelines Recommend Advanced Procedure to Treat Heart Valve Disease
  • B. Market Analytics
    • Table 18: US Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Prosthetic Heart Valves by Product Segment - Tissue Heart Valves, Transcatheter Heart Valves, and Mechanical Heart Valves Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Table 19: US 10-Year Perspective for Prosthetic Heart Valves by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Tissue Heart Valves, Transcatheter Heart Valves, and Mechanical Heart Valves Markets for Years 2015, 2018 & 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • 8.2 Canada
  • Market Analysis
    • Table 20: Canadian Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Prosthetic Heart Valves by Product Segment - Tissue Heart Valves, Transcatheter Heart Valves, and Mechanical Heart Valves Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Table 21: Canadian 10-Year Perspective for Prosthetic Heart Valves by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Tissue Heart Valves, Transcatheter Heart Valves, and Mechanical Heart Valves Markets for Years 2015, 2018 & 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • 8.3 Japan
  • A. Market Analysis
    • Current and Future Analysis
    • Aging Population - A Key Growth Driver for Prosthetic Heart Valves Market
    • Transcatheter Heart Valves Gain Market Share
    • TAVR/TAVI Devices Debut in Japan
  • B. Market Analytics
    • Table 22: Japanese Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Prosthetic Heart Valves by Product Segment - Tissue Heart Valves, Transcatheter Heart Valves, and Mechanical Heart Valves Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Table 23: Japanese 10-Year Perspective for Prosthetic Heart Valves by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Tissue Heart Valves, Transcatheter Heart Valves, and Mechanical Heart Valves Markets for Years 2015, 2018 & 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • 8.4 Europe
  • A. Market Analysis
    • Current and Future Analysis
    • Market Overview
    • Aging Population - A Key Market Driver
    • Table 24: European Population Distribution by Region and Age Group: 2015 (in Thousands) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Central and Eastern Europe Markets Offer Growth Opportunities
    • A Peek into the European TAVI Adoption Potential
    • Major Players
    • Table 25: Leading Players in the European Transcatheter Heart Valve Market (2017): Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Medtronic, Edwards Lifesciences, and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • B. Market Analytics
    • Table 26: European Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Prosthetic Heart Valves by Geographic Region - France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Russia, and Rest of Europe Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Table 27: European 10-Year Perspective for Prosthetic Heart Valves by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Russia, and Rest of Europe Markets for Years 2015, 2018 & 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Table 28: European Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Prosthetic Heart Valves by Product Segment - Tissue Heart Valves, Transcatheter Heart Valves, and Mechanical Heart Valves Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Table 29: European 10-Year Perspective for Prosthetic Heart Valves by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Tissue Heart Valves, Transcatheter Heart Valves, and Mechanical Heart Valves Markets for Years 2015, 2018 & 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • 8.4.1 France
  • A. Market Analysis
    • Current and Future Analysis
    • Demographic Review
    • Table 30: Percentage Distribution of French Population by Age Group: 2015 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • B. Market Analytics
    • Table 31: French Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Prosthetic Heart Valves Market Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • 8.4.2 Germany
  • A. Market Analysis
    • Current and Future Analysis
    • Reimbursements
    • Demographic Review
    • Table 32: Percentage Distribution of German Population by Age Group: 2015 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • B. Market Analytics
    • Table 33: German Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Prosthetic Heart Valves Market Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • 8.4.3 Italy
  • A. Market Analysis
    • Current and Future Analysis
    • Demographic Review
    • Table 34: Percentage Distribution of Italian Population by Age Group: 2015 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • B. Market Analytics
    • Table 35: Italian Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Prosthetic Heart Valves Market Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • 8.4.4 The United Kingdom
  • A. Market Analysis
    • Current and Future Analysis
    • Demographic Review
    • Table 36: Percentage Distribution of UK Population by Age Group: 2015 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • B. Market Analytics
    • Table 37: UK Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Prosthetic Heart Valves Market Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • 8.4.5 Spain
  • Market Analysis
    • Table 38: Spanish Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Prosthetic Heart Valves Market Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • 8.4.6 Russia
  • A. Market Analysis
    • Current and Future Analysis
    • Market Overview
  • B. Market Analytics
    • Table 39: Russian Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Prosthetic Heart Valves Market Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • 8.4.7 Rest of Europe
  • Market Analysis
    • Table 40: Rest of Europe Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Prosthetic Heart Valves Market Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • 8.5 Asia-Pacific
  • A. Market Analysis
    • Current and Future Analysis
    • Potential for Growth in Asia
    • Table 41: Over 65 Years Individuals as % of Total Population in Select Asian Countries (2015) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • B. Market Analytics
    • Table 42: Asia-Pacific Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Prosthetic Heart Valves by Geographic Region - China, India, and Rest of Asia-Pacific Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Table 43: Asia-Pacific 10-Year Perspective for Prosthetic Heart Valves by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for China, India, and Rest of Asia-Pacific Markets for Years 2015, 2018 & 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Table 44: Asia-Pacific Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Prosthetic Heart Valves by Product Segment - Tissue Heart Valves, Transcatheter Heart Valves, and Mechanical Heart Valves Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Table 45: Asia-Pacific 10-Year Perspective for Prosthetic Heart Valves by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Tissue Heart Valves, Transcatheter Heart Valves, and Mechanical Heart Valves Markets for Years 2015, 2018 & 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • 8.5.1 China
  • A. Market Analysis
    • Current and Future Analysis
    • A Market with Tremendous Potential
    • Table 46: Percentage Distribution of Chinese Population by Age Group: 2015 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Tissue Heart Valves to Outgrow Mechanical Versions
  • B. Market Analytics
    • Table 47: Chinese Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Prosthetic Heart Valves Market Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • 8.5.2 India
  • A. Market Analysis
    • Current and Future Analysis
    • Indian Heart Valve Market on a Growth Spree
    • India - A Large Attractive Market for Prosthetic Heart Valves Device Manufacturers
      • Medical Tourism to Boost Market for Prosthetic Valves
    • Competitive Landscape
  • B. Market Analytics
    • Table 48: Indian Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Prosthetic Heart Valves Market Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • 8.5.3 Rest of Asia-Pacific
  • Market Analysis
    • Table 49: Rest of Asia-Pacific Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Prosthetic Heart Valves Market Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • 8.6 Latin America
  • Market Analysis
    • Table 50: Latin American Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Prosthetic Heart Valves by Geographic Region - Brazil, and Rest of Latin America Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Table 51: Latin American 10-Year Perspective for Prosthetic Heart Valves by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Brazil, and Rest of Latin America Markets for Years 2015, 2018 & 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Table 52: Latin American Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Prosthetic Heart Valves by Product Segment - Tissue Heart Valves, Transcatheter Heart Valves, and Mechanical Heart Valves Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Table 53: Latin American 10-Year Perspective for Prosthetic Heart Valves by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Tissue Heart Valves, Transcatheter Heart Valves, and Mechanical Heart Valves Markets for Years 2015, 2018 & 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • 8.6.1 Brazil
  • A. Market Analysis
    • Current and Future Analysis
    • Market overview
  • B. Market Analytics
    • Table 54: Brazilian Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Prosthetic Heart Valves Market Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • 8.6.2 Rest of Latin America
  • Market Analysis
    • Table 55: Rest of Latin American Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Prosthetic Heart Valves Market Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
  • 8.7 Rest of World
  • Market Analysis
    • Table 56: Rest of World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Prosthetic Heart Valves by Product Segment - Tissue Heart Valves, Transcatheter Heart Valves, and Mechanical Heart Valves Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)
    • Table 57: Rest of World 10-Year Perspective for Prosthetic Heart Valves by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Tissue Heart Valves, Transcatheter Heart Valves, and Mechanical Heart Valves Markets for Years 2015, 2018 & 2024 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)

9. COMPANY PROFILES Total Companies Profiled: 22 (including Divisions/Subsidiaries - 26) The United States (12) Canada (1) Europe (6) - Germany (2) - The United Kingdom (2) - Rest of Europe (2) Asia-Pacific (Excluding Japan) (4) Middle East (1) Latin America (2)

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